OVERVIEW

Pathology involves the study of diseases e.g. infections and cancers, at the genetic, molecular, cellular, and organ levels. It is a medical specialty that focuses on making diagnoses and examines-

  1. How and why diseases develop,
  2. The disease process - what happens to our bodies when we are ill,
  3. The effects of diseases, including their symptoms and complications.

It plays a critical role in clinical diagnoses and guides many of the decisions around the optimal treatment for patients. The subject of pathology involves examination of various disease processes such as inflammation (including infections), wound healing and cancer, in-depth study of many fascinating and important disorders such as meningitis, tuberculosis, auto-immune diseases, congenital diseases, a variety of cancers, HIV/AIDS, heart disease, asthma, musculoskeletal diseases and the human version of 'mad cow disease'. Students become familiar with examining both macroscopic specimens and the microscopic differences between normal and abnormal cells, tissues and organs. In our modern teaching facilities, much of the study of microscopic abnormalities is undertaken using computer-based “virtual” microscopy.

 

Teaching –Learning Methodology:

 The pathology subject is taught in three semesters of six months each, comprises of 300 teaching hours, adopting integrated approach in combination with other Para clinical and clinical subjects. The faculty formulate the learning objectives based on the course objectives and use appropriate T-L methodology for training sessions, which includes didactic lectures, tutorials, lecture cum demonstration, interactive lectures, problem solving session, and structured quiz session on pathophysiology of common diseases.

Laboratory sessions include hands on skill development for hematological investigation, histological characteristics of different cells and tissue preparation, cytology and pathological autopsies.

 

Course Objectives:

At the end of the course, the student should be able to :-

  1. Describe the structure and ultrastructure of a sick cell, mechanisms of cell degeneration, cell death and repair and be able to correlate structural and functional alterations. ?
  2. Explain the pathophysiological processes which govern the maintenance of homeostasis, mechanisms of their disturbance and the morphological and clinical manifestations associated with it. ?
  3. Describe the mechanisms and patterns to tissue response to injury such that she/he can appreciate the pathophysiology of disease processes and their clinical manifestations.
  4. Correlate normal and altered morphology (gross and microscopic) of different organ systems in common diseases to the extent needed for understanding of disease processes and their clinical significance.

SKILLS

At the end of the course, the student should be able to:-

  1. Describe the rationale and principles of technical procedures of the diagnostic laboratory tests and interpretation of the results;
  2. Perform the simple bed-side tests on blood, urine and other biological fluid samples;
  3. Draw a rational scheme of investigations aimed at diagnosing and managing the cases of common disorders;
  4. Understand biochemical/physiological disturbances that occur as a result of disease in collaboration with pre clinical departments.

INTEGRATION

At the end of training he/she should be able to integrate the causes of disease and relationship of different etiological factors (social, economic and environmental) that contribute to the natural history of diseases most prevalent in India. 

CURRICULUM

Outline of the Course Content:

The teaching hours for Pathology course will be 300 hrs., which Includes Lectures, Practicals, Tutorials, Demonstrations & Seminars. Broad distribution of teaching hours is as given below:

Didactic Lectures                                                               

Demonstrations                                                       

Practicals,                                                                

Tutorials,                                                                    

Group learning sessions                             

Interactive review sessions                                             

Seminars & Symposium                                          

Integrated T-L sessions                                           

 

Course Contents:

(A) General Pathology

1.   Introduction to Pathology

2. Cell Injury

3. Amyloidosis and Calcification

4. Inflammations and Repair

5. Circulatory Disturbances

6. Growth Disturbances and Neoplasia

7.Immunopathology

8.Infectious Diseases

9. Miscellaneous Disorders

(B) Systemic Pathology

1.   Cardiovascular Pathology

2.   Respiratory Pathology

3.Urinary Tract Pathology

4. Pathology of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

5.Hematopathology

6. Liver and Biliary Tract Pathology

7. Lymphoreticular System

8. Reproductive System

9.Osteopathology

10.Endocrine Pathology

11.Neuropathology

(C) Practicals

a) Identify and interpret the gross and/or microscopic features of common disorders as given above.

b) Perform with accuracy and reliability basic hematological procedures such as hemoglobin estimation, total and differential WBC count and peripheral blood smear staining, examination and report.

c) Calculate the indices and interpret the relevant significance.

d) Perform the basic laboratory haematological tests like bleeding time and clotting time

e) Perform a complete examination of the urine and detect any abnormalities

f) Grouping and cross matching of blood

g) Collect and dispatch clinical samples from patients in a proper manner

h) Interpret abnormal biochemical laboratory values of common diseases

FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Lecture Theatre

The Institute has state-of-the-art air conditioned lecture rooms that are designed spaciously to accommodate the students at a time. All the lecture rooms are facilitated with audio visual equipments including LCD projectors, slide projectors, microphones, etc. Apart from the lecture rooms, all the departments have seminar/demonstration rooms with audio-visual aids. Digital IP cameras are installed to record live lectures, which are converted into digital format for the provision of E-learning. Multi-purpose halls are designed for conducting exams. These halls are well equipped with surveillance system to monitor the students during examination.

Demonstration Rooms

RMRI is adopting best practices for tutorials/demonstrations. Department has two demonstration rooms of 60 Sq.M & 75 seating capacity each fitted with strip chairs, over head projector, slide projector, & other audio-visual aids. 

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