OVERVIEW

The Physiology provides an understanding how cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems function together to create one organism. Furthermore, the course lays the basis for understanding diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The course content of the physiology is as per the regulations prescribed by the Medical Council of India and MJP Ruhelkhand University Bareilly

 

Teaching –Learning Methodology

Physiology courseis taught in two semester of six months each, comprises of 480 teaching hours, delivered in a cooperative learning format (Team-Based Learning), in combination with other preclinical subjects e.g. Anatomy and Biochemistry. While delivering the course, the faculty formulate the learning objectives based on the course objectives and uses appropriate T-L methodology, which includes didactic lectures, tutorials, lecture cum demonstration, interactive lectures, problem solving session and use of flip class room. ?

Laboratory sessions include hands on training of hematological & human experimental procedures using Objective structured practical examination (OSPE), clinical examination of normal subjects, using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) for  practicing of clinical procedures, presentations of clinical case scenario, and debriefing of problem-solving skills.

 

Teaching-Learning Facilities

The department has been provided with air-conditioned lecture theatre of 200 capacity equipped with IT compatible presentation facilities with OHP and white board to facilitate blended teaching learning sessions. For small group teaching, there are two-demonstration rooms with 80 seating capacity. 

For practicing laboratory and clinical skills, there is well-equipped hematology laboratory, Mammalian & Experimental Laboratory, and human /clinical labs.

 

Course objectives and contents

The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Physiology aims at providing the student comprehensive knowledge of the normal functions of the organ systems of the body to facilitate an understanding of the physiological basis of health and disease.

a) KNOWLEDGE

At the end of the course the student will be able to :

(1)  explain the normal functioning of all the organ systems and their interactions for well coordinated total body function. ?

(2)  assess the relative contribution of each organ system to the maintenance of the milieu interior. ?

(3)  elucidate the physiological aspects of normal growth and development. ?

(4)  describe the physiological response and adaptations to environmental stresses. ?

(5)  list the physiological principles underlying pathogenesis and treatment of disease. ?

b) SKILLS

At the end of the course the student should be able to :

(1)  conduct experiments designed for study of physiological phenomena. ?

(2)  interpret experimental/investigative data. ?

(3)  distinguish between normal and abnormal data derived as a result of tests which he/she has performed and observed in the laboratory. ?

c) INTEGRATION

At the end of the integrated teaching the student should acquire an integrated knowledge of organ structure and function and its regulatory mechanisms.

 

Outline of the Course Content:

The teaching hours for total physiology course will be 480 hrs. which Including Lectures, Practicals, Tutorials, Demonstrations & Seminars. Broad distribution of teaching hours is as given below:

Didactic Lectures                                                 193   

Demonstrations                                                    36

Practicals,                                                           174

Tutorials,                                                             32

Group learning sessions                                        10

Interactive review sessions                                   15     

Seminars& Symposium                                        10

Integrated T-L sessions                                        20

 

EXAMINATION AND INTERNAL ASSESSMENT

The internal assessment will be done based on the performance in the first term, second term, and pre-university examination conducted by the departments after conclusion of each term. The university examination will be held at end of one year and is mandatory for all the students to secure 50% marks in theory and practical separately.

CURRICULUM

Physiology Department provides an in-depth knowledge of complex molecular organism. Physiology provides a firm basis for the practice of clinical medicine.

Department is enriched with Amphibian Laboratory, Mammalian Laboratories, Clinical Physiology, Hematology Lab and Research Lab.  

 

Course Contents

 

General Physiology - 11 Hours

[Transport across cell membrane 2 -Homeostasis & stress 2 -Action Potential, Ionic composition 2 , Principles of biophysics and its applied aspects 1. - Biopotentials and its applied aspects 1. - Transport across cell membrane 1.

 

 

BLOOD - 15 Hours

Composition and function of blood?- Plasma proteins?- RBC – Erythropoiesis and function of RBC?- Hb?- Anaemias?- WBC – Development and functions?- Platelets?- Blood coagulation disorders and mechanism of haemostasis. - Blood Groups / Blood Volume?- Immunity?- R.E. system & Lymphatic system

 

MUSCLE NERVE - 15 Hours

Structure and function of skeletal muscle & smooth muscle?- Properties of skeletal muscle & generation of potentials?- Transmission along cell membrane?- Mechanism of muscle contraction?- Transmission of impulse along neuromuscular junction?- Myasthenia gravis and neurotransmitters, Neuromuscular blocking agents - Structure, Function and classification of Neurons?- Origin and transmission of impulse in nerve fiber?- Degeneration & regeneration in nerve, reaction of degeneration.

 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - 15 Hours

 

Digestive tract and functions of salivary glands?- Composition, function & mechanism of secretion of saliva?- Composition, function & mechanism of secretion of gastric juice - Hypochlorhydria, hyperchlorhydria, peptic & duodenal ulcer; their correlation with stress?- Composition, functions & mechanism of secretion of pancreatic juices - Composition, functions & mechanism of secretion of bile?- Composition, function & mechanism of secretion of succus entericus - Function of large intestine?- Function of liver?- Movements of alimentary canal?- Digestion & absorption of various food stuff

 

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - 15 Hours

Respiratory tract & function of respiratory system?- Lung volume & capacities?- Intrapulmonary & intra-pleural pressure & surfactant - Lung Compliance?- Mechanics of breathing?- O2 carriage?- Co2 carriage?- Hypoxia?- Control of respiration, Periodic Breathing, Dysbarism, Cyanosis and Asphyxia, Applied Physiology.

 

EXCRETION - 15 hours

Structure, blood supply & functions of kidney, Mechanism of filtration & GFR, Tubular function , Micturition & its control, Renal function tests & pathogenesis of renal disorders, Functions of skin & Regulation of body temperature, Water balance, diuretics, dialysis and applied physiology.

 

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM  - 17 hours

- Structure & properties of cardiac muscle, Generation of action potential & transmission of cardiac impulse in conductive tissues, ECG, Cardiac cycle, Volume and pressure changes, correlation with ECG & phonocardiogram, Heart sounds and murmurs,  Hemodynamics, Cardiac output & its control,  Heart rate and its control, various arrhythmias, Arterial B.P. & its control, Hypertension & Hypotension, Physiology of coronary circulation, Other Regional circulation, Physiological basis of shock.

 

ENDOCRINE - 14 hours

General considerations of endocrine system, Names, synthesis, actions, control of secretion, function tests & disorders of hormones of Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal medulla, Pancreas Hormones, Diabetes, Thymus, pineal and local hormones.

 

REPRODUCTION - 15 hours

Growth & Development of body, influence of various hormones & Puberty, Male reproductive system & functions of testes, Reproductive cycles in female & its disorders, Physiology of pregnancy, Parturition& physiology of lactation, Pathogenesis & treatment of gonad disorders in males & females, Contraceptives & Infertility, Physiology of Newborn, Respiratory distress syndrome, Circulatory changes.

 

NERVOUE SYSYEM - 35 hours             

General considerations of CNS & ANS, Structure & properties of synapse and synaptic transmission, Receptors, their functions with physiology of pain in particular, Reflexes, Reflex action and their properties, Tracts of spinal cord, their functions and effects of hemi section and Transaction of spinal cord, Autonomic nervous system, Physiology of sleep and speech with their disorders, E.E.G., Functions of C.S.F. and lumbar puncture, Normal functioning of the following parts of the brain, their disorders and an outline of treatment Hypothalamus, Thalamus,  Reticular formation, Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, Cerebral cortex, Tone, Posture & Equilibrium, Conditioned Reflex, Limbic system.

 

SPECIAL SENSES - 14 hours

Various parts of eyeball and their functions, Refractive media and optics, Errors of refraction & Accommodation in eye, Photochemistry of vision, Acuity & field of vision with disorders, Colour vision and colour blindness, Dark & light adaptation, monocular and binocular vision, Visual pathway and lesions at different levels, Functions of external ear, middle ear and cochlea, Mechanism of hearing and endo-cochlear potentials, Physiology of taste, Physiology of smell.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL, REGULATORY & EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY - 7 hours

Physiology of high altitude, acclimatization,& effect of high?atmospheric pressure, Aviation & space physiology, Body temperature regulation, Hypo & Hyperthermia, Physiology of exercise & yoga.

 

 

FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Demonstration Rooms

RMRI is adopting best practices for tutorials/demonstrations. Department has two demonstration rooms of 60 Sq.M & 75 seating capacity each fitted with strip chairs, over head projector, slide projector, & other audio-visual aids. 

Lecture Theatre

The Institute has state-of-the-art air conditioned lecture rooms that are designed spaciously to accommodate the students at a time. All the lecture rooms are facilitated with audio visual equipments including LCD projectors, slide projectors, microphones, etc. Apart from the lecture rooms, all the departments have seminar/demonstration rooms with audio-visual aids. Digital IP cameras are installed to record live lectures, which are converted into digital format for the provision of E-learning. Multi-purpose halls are designed for conducting exams. These halls are well equipped with surveillance system to monitor the students during examination.

Faculty Profile

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RESEARCH

COMING SOON

PUBLICATIONS

Prof R.C.Sharma

  • (a)Amir Aiman and Dr RC Sharma (2013): Potential role of organotin compounds (EDCs) in aetiopathogenesis of obesity, Neuroscience Research Letters, ISSN: 0976- 8866 & E-ISSN: 0976-8874, accepted for publication. 
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  • (b)Dr AB Chattopadhyay, Dr R.C.Sharma, Dr RK Sharma, Dr Somshekhar Sharma (2013) Altered interactions of bioactive factors in pre-eclampsia International Journal of Medical and Clinical Research ISSN: 0976-5530 & E-ISSN: 0976-5549, Volume 4, Issue 2, 
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  • (c)Sharma R.C., Bhattacharya N, Sharma S and Garg K (2013) Impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Healthy Individuals. International Journal of Medical and Clinical Research, ISSN: 0976-5530 & E-ISSN: 0976-5549, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp.-245-247
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  • (d)Bhattacharya N. and Sharma R.C. (2012) Blood Pressure Mediated Pain Modulation. Neuroscience Research Letters, ISSN: 0976-8866 & E-ISSN: 0976- 8874, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp.-40-43. 
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  • (e)Sharma R.C., Somshekhar Sharma, Shimpa Sharma and RK Sharma (2012) Potentials of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) In Physiology. World Research Journal of Peptide and Protein, ISSN: 2278-4586 & E-ISSN: 2278-4608, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp.-41-45. 
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  • (f)Shimpa Sharma, RC Sharma and RK Sharma (2012); Plasma BNP level as predictor tool of Myocardial infarction in Diabetic Patients. International Journal of Medical and Clinical Research, ISSN:0976–5530 & E-ISSN:0976–5549, Volume 1, Issue 1, 
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  • (g)RC Sharma and RK Sharma (2012); Reduced 6-Keto PGF1 alpha & Plasma Renin Activity in Pre-Eclamptic Subjects. International Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN: 0976–0482 & E-ISSN: 0976–0490, Vol. 2, Issue 1, 

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