Physiology is the basic science that deals with the mechanisms of normal functions of various body systems. When body systems function normally, a state of good health is maintained. Abnormal function may eventually lead to disease. Thus a good understanding of normal physiological processes is essential for recognizing abnormality and disease. Physiologists view life from the simplest to the most complex levels of organization & from the sub cellular, to the whole person. Physiologists make an important contribution to areas such as heart disease, reproduction and ageing and global population control. The Department of Physiology at Rajshree Medical Research institute has its strength in research and teaching. The Department of Physiology is committed to the intellectual growth of the students and provides excellent teaching and research facilities. It is dedicated to understanding fundamental physiological processes and translating these to education and clinical care.
Pedagogy & Facilities
The Department of Physiology consists of a core group of faculty members who are dedicated to innovative medical research and education to a variety of students. Faculty members of the department are committed to provide their best to meet the educational need of the students. Educational approach includes formal lectures, demonstrations, and laboratories, both real and virtual. The department is actively involved in imparting theoretical concepts by means of didactic lectures, demonstrations, tutorial, clinical examination, animal experiment, seminars, group discussion, problem based learning, quiz and laboratory practical, etc to enhance active learning and horizontal integration, using audiovisual aids. Department has many labs like Hematology lab, Human Physiology/clinical lab, Amphibian lab, Mammalian lab, Clinical lab, etc and its own library. It has the facilities like Physiograph, Computerised Spirometer, Spectrophotometer, ECG,EEG, EMG,Polygraph, Perimeter, pH Meter, etc.
- Excellent teaching and research facilities
- Equipped with the sophisticated instruments for all types of basic clinical experiments
- Introduction of Problem based learning
- Regular Tutorials and “Audio-Visual” demonstrations on varied topic of interest
- Uses the concept of active learning and active involvement of students
- Supports and fosters a workplace diverse in people and ideas.
Teaching –Learning Methodology
Physiology courseis taught in two semester of six months each, comprises of 480 teaching hours, delivered in a cooperative learning format (Team-Based Learning), in combination with other preclinical subjects e.g. Anatomy and Biochemistry. While delivering the course, the faculty formulate the learning objectives based on the course objectives and uses appropriate T-L methodology, which includes didactic lectures, tutorials, lecture cum demonstration, interactive lectures, problem solving session and use of flip class room. ?
Laboratory sessions include hands on training of hematological & human experimental procedures using Objective structured practical examination (OSPE), clinical examination of normal subjects, using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) for practicing of clinical procedures, presentations of clinical case scenario, and debriefing of problem-solving skills.
The department has been provided with air-conditioned lecture theatre of 200 capacity equipped with IT compatible presentation facilities with OHP and white board to facilitate blended teaching learning sessions. For small group teaching, there are two-demonstration rooms with 80 seating capacity.
For practicing laboratory and clinical skills, there is well-equipped hematology laboratory, Mammalian & Experimental Laboratory, and human /clinical labs.
Course objectives and contents
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Physiology aims at providing the student comprehensive knowledge of the normal functions of the organ systems of the body to facilitate an understanding of the physiological basis of health and disease.
At the end of the course the student will be able to :
(1) explain the normal functioning of all the organ systems and their interactions for well coordinated total body function. ?
(2) assess the relative contribution of each organ system to the maintenance of the milieu interior. ?
(3) elucidate the physiological aspects of normal growth and development. ?
(4) describe the physiological response and adaptations to environmental stresses. ?
(5) list the physiological principles underlying pathogenesis and treatment of disease. ?
At the end of the course the student should be able to :
(1) conduct experiments designed for study of physiological phenomena. ?
(2) interpret experimental/investigative data. ?
(3) distinguish between normal and abnormal data derived as a result of tests which he/she has performed and observed in the laboratory. ?
At the end of the integrated teaching the student should acquire an integrated knowledge of organ structure and function and its regulatory mechanisms.
Outline of the Course Content:
The teaching hours for total physiology course will be 480 hrs. which Including Lectures, Practicals, Tutorials, Demonstrations & Seminars. Broad distribution of teaching hours is as given below:
Didactic Lectures 193
Group learning sessions 10
Interactive review sessions 15
Seminars& Symposium 10
Integrated T-L sessions 20
EXAMINATION AND INTERNAL ASSESSMENT
The internal assessment will be done based on the performance in the first term, second term, and pre-university examination conducted by the departments after conclusion of each term. The university examination will be held at end of one year and is mandatory for all the students to secure 50% marks in theory and practical separately.
Physiology Department provides an in-depth knowledge of complex molecular organism. Physiology provides a firm basis for the practice of clinical medicine.
Department is enriched with Amphibian Laboratory, Mammalian Laboratories, Clinical Physiology, Hematology Lab and Research Lab.
General Physiology – 11 Hours
[Transport across cell membrane 2 -Homeostasis & stress 2 -Action Potential, Ionic composition 2 , Principles of biophysics and its applied aspects 1. – Biopotentials and its applied aspects 1. – Transport across cell membrane 1.
BLOOD – 15 Hours
Composition and function of blood?- Plasma proteins?- RBC – Erythropoiesis and function of RBC?- Hb?- Anaemias?- WBC – Development and functions?- Platelets?- Blood coagulation disorders and mechanism of haemostasis. – Blood Groups / Blood Volume?- Immunity?- R.E. system & Lymphatic system
MUSCLE NERVE – 15 Hours
Structure and function of skeletal muscle & smooth muscle?- Properties of skeletal muscle & generation of potentials?- Transmission along cell membrane?- Mechanism of muscle contraction?- Transmission of impulse along neuromuscular junction?- Myasthenia gravis and neurotransmitters, Neuromuscular blocking agents – Structure, Function and classification of Neurons?- Origin and transmission of impulse in nerve fiber?- Degeneration & regeneration in nerve, reaction of degeneration.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM – 15 Hours
Digestive tract and functions of salivary glands?- Composition, function & mechanism of secretion of saliva?- Composition, function & mechanism of secretion of gastric juice – Hypochlorhydria, hyperchlorhydria, peptic & duodenal ulcer; their correlation with stress?- Composition, functions & mechanism of secretion of pancreatic juices – Composition, functions & mechanism of secretion of bile?- Composition, function & mechanism of secretion of succus entericus – Function of large intestine?- Function of liver?- Movements of alimentary canal?- Digestion & absorption of various food stuff
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM – 15 Hours
Respiratory tract & function of respiratory system?- Lung volume & capacities?- Intrapulmonary & intra-pleural pressure & surfactant – Lung Compliance?- Mechanics of breathing?- O2 carriage?- Co2 carriage?- Hypoxia?- Control of respiration, Periodic Breathing, Dysbarism, Cyanosis and Asphyxia, Applied Physiology.
EXCRETION – 15 hours
Structure, blood supply & functions of kidney, Mechanism of filtration & GFR, Tubular function , Micturition & its control, Renal function tests & pathogenesis of renal disorders, Functions of skin & Regulation of body temperature, Water balance, diuretics, dialysis and applied physiology.
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM – 17 hours
– Structure & properties of cardiac muscle, Generation of action potential & transmission of cardiac impulse in conductive tissues, ECG, Cardiac cycle, Volume and pressure changes, correlation with ECG & phonocardiogram, Heart sounds and murmurs, Hemodynamics, Cardiac output & its control, Heart rate and its control, various arrhythmias, Arterial B.P. & its control, Hypertension & Hypotension, Physiology of coronary circulation, Other Regional circulation, Physiological basis of shock.
ENDOCRINE – 14 hours
General considerations of endocrine system, Names, synthesis, actions, control of secretion, function tests & disorders of hormones of Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal medulla, Pancreas Hormones, Diabetes, Thymus, pineal and local hormones.
REPRODUCTION – 15 hours
Growth & Development of body, influence of various hormones & Puberty, Male reproductive system & functions of testes, Reproductive cycles in female & its disorders, Physiology of pregnancy, Parturition& physiology of lactation, Pathogenesis & treatment of gonad disorders in males & females, Contraceptives & Infertility, Physiology of Newborn, Respiratory distress syndrome, Circulatory changes.
NERVOUE SYSYEM – 35 hours
General considerations of CNS & ANS, Structure & properties of synapse and synaptic transmission, Receptors, their functions with physiology of pain in particular, Reflexes, Reflex action and their properties, Tracts of spinal cord, their functions and effects of hemi section and Transaction of spinal cord, Autonomic nervous system, Physiology of sleep and speech with their disorders, E.E.G., Functions of C.S.F. and lumbar puncture, Normal functioning of the following parts of the brain, their disorders and an outline of treatment Hypothalamus, Thalamus, Reticular formation, Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, Cerebral cortex, Tone, Posture & Equilibrium, Conditioned Reflex, Limbic system.
SPECIAL SENSES – 14 hours
Various parts of eyeball and their functions, Refractive media and optics, Errors of refraction & Accommodation in eye, Photochemistry of vision, Acuity & field of vision with disorders, Colour vision and colour blindness, Dark & light adaptation, monocular and binocular vision, Visual pathway and lesions at different levels, Functions of external ear, middle ear and cochlea, Mechanism of hearing and endo-cochlear potentials, Physiology of taste, Physiology of smell.
ENVIRONMENTAL, REGULATORY & EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY – 7 hours
Physiology of high altitude, acclimatization,& effect of high?atmospheric pressure, Aviation & space physiology, Body temperature regulation, Hypo & Hyperthermia, Physiology of exercise & yoga.
DR. NARENDRA GUPTA
PROFESSOR & HEAD